(12) In a number of NENA languages this new preterite regarding Class II verbs enjoys a great vocalism (m)CoCiC- or (m)CuCiC- which has no forerunner in the previous dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) ideal the progressive mode is actually regarding new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he grabbed it out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Versions that have o or u is missing outside NENA while having in several of one’s NENA languages: Hertevin, Sanandaj Christian, and you can Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) All round establish is actually designated from the a beneficial prefix in most NENA but Hertevin along with Mandaic along with Turoyo. New prefix takes among three forms: (a) k- to the all of the verbs (state-of-the-art to help you c- in the Urmi, offered in order to ko- before consonants for the Turoyo, plus Zakho becoming grams- in advance of a voiced phoneme); (b) k- but simply on a small group of verbs (with a few voicing intake and regularly almost every other changes as well); otherwise (c) i- with the all verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, individual communications); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we manage say’, but doqIx-wa-ce ‘we manage to see it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he takes, commonly eat’, however, sate ‘he drinks, tend to, will get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin we-zare:los angeles ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they pursue her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
This new k- prefix is apparently an emergency of your prefix qa- out-of BT, such as the newest ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. e ‘stands’. In some east dialects the latest distribution of k- is limited by a tiny family of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it’s got disappeared and you will started changed by the a new prefix i-, and that probably originated just like the a diminished brand of we[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I goes toward the synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla da kIcca ‘I visited provide currency to help you good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The fresh verb ‘give’ are yehav inside the BT, and you can yav in Syriac. This has been remade throughout NENA dialects through the incorporation of your own following l- ‘to’. New essential, that has been hav in the Syriac and you will BT, are hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in most NENA in which I have recommendations, not for the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic.
(15) In every NENA, this new only 1 crucial away from qyama ‘get up’ has shed the final m: Aradhin https://datingranking.net/es/citas-tailandes/ qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). The fresh new plural, not, holds the fresh new yards.
(16) In every NENA, the fresh new imperative regarding (i)zala ‘go’ are irregular: Aradhin lorsque (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian say (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani au moment ou (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) All over NENA, several different terminology are utilized since the ft getting reflexive pronouns like ‘myself’. He is: ruh- inside Hertevin plus Turoyo, nos- on the about three easternmost Jewish dialects, and you can gyan- about left languages: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
That it qa- are itself a beneficial contraction regarding qa?
(18) An alternate preposition definition ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ which will take the shape ta, tla, or tla was extensive, even though perhaps not universal, inside the NENA, not found in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) stumbled on cook’ (Rubba, individual interaction), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga story ‘no one to launched the door to help you him’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182).